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Dzte is best known for its Islamic to a pre-Arab era structure, most probably constructed in heritage, most apparent in the Ayyubid mosque, Mamluk the Roman period and the most plausible explanation is that they formed part of a Roman military installation.

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Documentary evidence of the period from Ismant al- Nonetheless, it is evident that al-Qasr also witnessed Kharab, ancient Kellis, has, for some time now, verified occupation activity during the late Roman Period. A the existence of a castrum or castra in Dakhleh, yet there survey of the site conducted by the Dakhleh Oasis Project has been no convincing archaeological evidence attesting DOP in 1 first indicated this and recent to the presence of one anywhere in the oasis. In the discussion of castra, a Farafra Inspectorate, conducted an excavation nearby in particular type of fortified structure associated with the and exposed a largely intact section of a significant military is referred to: The SCA also found Coptic architecture.

Inthe first archaeological Fayyum and in which the ala V Praelectorum was stationed investigations of the Qasr Dakhleh Project QDP took during the fourth century CE Bell et alii13—16, 19— place in this quarter of al-Qasr in an effort to examine the 21; Schwartz et alii In plan these forts usually have remains and determine better the extent of the structure. At most plan of the structure, and excavations revealed a number of the sites located in the western oases which have been of important Date for monday in el qasr of its Date for monday in el qasr. This paper discusses the archaeological some temple sites in the Western Desert have also been evidence from al-Qasr, addressing also the historical setting considered as forts.

It is possible that a combination of their for the construction and operation of the fort. I acknowledge and thank Fred Leemhuis, Director of the QDP, for inviting me to participate in the investigations and for permitting me intellectual ownership of the data and material obtained through the course of fieldwork. Preliminary reports of the excavations may be accessed via the DOP website: Whilst there is evidence for a military association history of al-Qasr. Here there is a series of thick scope of this paper, the focus will be limited to the main and high mud-brick walls, which are uncharacteristic of castra and their importance in this region.

The earliest indication of Arab Period activity at the site, and consequently for Dakhleh, is the late Fatimid era. A military presence, perhaps temporary, is attested in the temple at Dush in Kharga Oasis but there are no obvious signs of fortification Wagner—9, —7; see also O. The temple enclosure at Mut al-Kharab in Dakhleh may have fulfilled a similar purpose. At this site, structures which resemble towers and which are provisionally dated to the Roman period have been discovered at two corners of and along the massive temenos wall Hope48;97; Hope et alii36; Hope Leemhuis; Bir Sukhan is located in the south-west area of A.

The wall was built with the same type and The state of this area around the well has changed size of mud brick that is attested near the old mosque. In dramatically over the course of the years, yet now it is earlya further 30 m of connected wall was evident that a wall, several metres thick, once stood to its discovered to the east of the SCA excavation by the author. This continuation of the wall also stands several metres Preservation of the wall varies considerably. To the west high and was incorporated into and partially built over of the old mosque, what appear to be 6 metre-thick by later structures, through which it can be traced.

This part of Preservation of the wall varies between poor and very the wall has been truncated by a dirt path, approximately good, but it is clearly tapered and at approximately 15 m 5 m wide, which provides access to the central area of in from the exposed western end, there is a circular feature the old well. The well ceased supplying water three which appears to be part of the wall alignment. This decades ago and is now filled in completely to the level feature is situated beneath the floor level of a room of the pathway. About half the width of the 6 metre- belonging to a later structure that was built over the wall thick foundations may be seen protruding from the and it is probable that the circular brickwork formed part exposed stratigraphy beneath the southwest corner of the of a semicircular wall tower.

The wall is undoubtedly courtyard wall belonging to the old mosque. Further the north wall of the castrum. This area was the old mosque. The position and lines of the two walls excavated in the field season, during which the inner as well as traces of matching wall identified just east of edge of the foundation was detected and a semicircular the old well has provided us with an idea of the general addition to the outer, south edge of the wall was exposed size of the castrum. The structure had an internal area of Figure 3. The semicircular feature in particular is highly approximately 3, sq m circa 58 x 58 m. Insignificant as it is doubtless the base of an externally- this was confirmed by the discovery of a section of the projecting wall tower.

To the east of the old mosque, a west wall in Trench 4, near the presumed location of the large portion of a thick, but heavily eroded wall stands southwest corner of the castrum see Figure 2. This several metres high. This seems to align with the wall excavation was conducted within a ruined house and the remains at the south-west end of the old mosque and it is work exposed portions of two structures below the floor joined to another similar high wall which is oriented of one of the rooms. The apparent outer face of the west north—south. The latter wall is also heavily spoiled but it wall of the castrum was located at the east end of the preserves a small section of tapered inner wall face.

The trench and was built with the same type and size of brick arrangement of the two walls indicates that this is the attested in the other walls. The foundations for the wall southeast corner qase the castrum, while the qaxr are approximately 2 m high Datf consist of regular brick located at the south-west end of mondxy mosque form part of coursing with a ledge i. It the south wall belonging to the same structure. Inis clear from the plan of this area that its position correlates Trenches 1 and 3 were excavated alongside and partially with a projection of the castrum circuit wall.

Trench 4 over the north-south wall alignment in the south-east has also produced a significant group of late Roman corner area. Work in this area revealed that the wall was ceramics which originate from deposits that formed built directly upon the basal clay and above ground it against the wall. This material is awaiting further was approximately 4. The standing sections examination,6 but a preliminary analysis of diagnostic and traces of wall in the area of the old mosque all have pieces reveals that there are ceramics which are datable relatively straw-free mud bricks measuring 34 x 17 x 8— from the third into the fifth and later centuries amongst 9 cm.

This size is commonly attested at several Roman the corpus. They appear to be completely solid the settlement of al-Qasr. Approximately 10 m coursing. The method is known as a raking course, the possibility that the soldiers were Egyptians, perhaps which controls tapering and may add longitudinal strength even from the oasis, as the use of Sahidic Coptic suggests to the wall. This type of technique seems to have been in that the recipients were able to sasr in i use from Pharaonic times, although it Dae not very common language.

Local recruitment into the auxiliaries based in and Spencersuggests that it mondah more Kharga in the late Daye century is attested in the Dush common in the Graeco-Roman Periods. In the oases, its ostraka O. Douchand Cuvigny and Wagner use is attested in the Roman fort located at el-Deir al-42; Wagner7—8and this document from Dayr in Kharga Oasis, at Amhida in one of the pyramid al-Qasr could indicate the same for Dakhleh. A small number of P. Davoli, personal communication, —; papyri and ostraka from Kellis reveal that 10 Mackensen—3.

Although it is not restricted to was often the destination for supplies P. Bingen andat least two other late Roman forts in Egypt suggests that Bagnall and Worp, ; O. Possibly all references in the Kellis fortifications. Overall, the nature of the walls, the documentary material are to the same camp in Dakhleh, dimensions and characteristics of the structure at al-Qasr which may well be al-Qasr, but this cannot be proved. The position of the information which might otherwise assist in locating the walls in relation to the old well is also particularly camp.

New evidence has emerged recently from Amhida important and it is probable that the structure was still however, which now provides us with the name of a camp visible in the Arab Period. Given the proximity of al-Qasr to al-Qasr which supports the identification of this structure Trimithis, there can be little doubt that it was a reference as a late Roman fort is a Coptic ostrakon. The ostrakon to the fort located at al-Qasr. As might be expected, the was found by the SCA in association with the large castra of the oases were focal points for military supplies. A similar situation is evident in the documentary communication, Although the contents of the letter material from Kharga Oasis.

In the the camp Cuvigny and Wagner ; Wagner ; western oases, two major forts are already known: It is probable that the forts were capable of storing Deir in Kharga Oasis and Qaret el-Toub in Bahriyya supply for up to one year. An indication of this capacity Oasis. El-Deir14 Figure 4 is fairly well preserved and is provided by P.

El monday qasr Date for in

Four flights of stairs are set into this circuit wall, which was punctuated on the west by a single entrance. Only the lower part of the Late Roman Fortifications in Egypt and the entrance remains. It was built in baked mud bricks which Major Oasis Sites were bonded with a white lime mortar. Twelve projecting Beginning in the late third century CE and lasting for circular and semicircular towers are situated on the outer approximately two decades, Egypt witnessed the face of the circuit wall; one circular tower on each corner construction of many fortifications. In conjunction with and two semicircular towers per wall length. The towers administrative reforms, the military organisation within that were located on the west side flanked the entrance.

The overall plan of el-Deir conforms most likely at el-Kab. This was undoubtedly part of the to the generally accepted type of Roman fort known as larger fort-building programme which was employed quadriburgia. The fort at Qaret el-Toub is nearly identical empire-wide by the Tetrarchy and also included the in plan and size to that of el-Deir, except with nine wall refurbishment of camps Eumenius, Panegyrici Latini, towers Colin et alii a,; b, ;9. Diocletian in particular is credited with having ; Both forts date to the reign of Diocletian. Importantly, from Egypt to the Persian borders and stationed there is also epigraphic and numismatic evidence from limitanei in them, and he appointed duces for the site which indicates that the fort was established in each province to be stationed further back from CE Colin et alii;; The number of disturbances and related problems for Rome.

From the mid-third century, the threat of raids also emanated from the west. Documents13 from the Fayyum indicate Notitia Dignitatum, Strategy and the Role of the that this region was susceptible to attacks by Libyan groups and although an attack on one of the western oases Military in the Oases is not known at this time, the potential for security-related The location of the main oasis forts is very important and problems to arise in these connected areas was no doubt together they suggest a strategy that was intended to real. The smaller forts of north Kharga also As a result of archaeological work conducted over the reflect this theme see Rossi, this volume.

Princeton II 29 Kase21—22P. Fortification of the oases in the late third century was and Rodgers—5, note 35; Brennan44, no doubt accompanied by the deployment of garrisons Importantly, both units are attested in the southern and we are fortunate to know the units deployed to the oases during the first decade of the fourth century CPR oases from the Notitia Dignitatum. This is a late VII 21, trans. Kaimio in Zilliacus et alii—3; fourth—early fifth-century directory of civil and military P. According to the Notitia Following the apparent clockwise itinerary of the Or. It is highly probable that Qaret the Nile Valley, headed to Kharga and Dakhleh, and el-Toub, el-Deir and al-Qasr were the headquarters for then returned to the Nile Valley at Prektis Worpthese units respectively.

They were cavalry units raised ; P. Brennan, personal communication, Only initially from amongst ethnic Armenians, Abasgi and three dromedarii camel units were based in Egypt Quadi, and in the case of the latter two, it is possible and it is significant that two of these were stationed at that they were formed in the mid to late s as there locations connected with the southern oases Not. Dromedarii are attested Evidently there were implications for an oasis, in this in several ostraka from Dush in Kharga which implies case Bahriyya, and the events highlight the importance inter-regional activity.

Many of the men are associated of controlling the desert roads, and furthermore on an with other units based in the Thebaid, but it is possible inter-regional scale. The late third century and included the western oases may employment of dromedaries, which are obviously well- have related in part to improving the security of the suited to the desert environment, would have been province and its connecting routes. Once more, the advantageous to activities linked with the oasis strategy. The mobility of facilitated patrols and policing of the roads. Perhaps for troops was undoubtedly a key aspect and likewise much of the fourth century, the situation was relatively necessary for activities conducted within the oases and stable, but the region remained vulnerable.

During the the roads beyond them. By this closely with economic activities. A sense of the types stage, the effectiveness of any strategies or systems that of activities that such auxiliary units took part in is were in place to control the desert and its roads had surely gained from a broad documentary corpus. Gascou and Pintaudi—6the procurement and distribution of military supplies O. More generally, they participated in the results obtained from a preliminary survey and two seasons collection of taxes ChLAin Bruckner and of excavation have already enhanced our understanding Marichal79; P.

Bell et aliiof the early history of the site and shed new light on the 40the apprehension of law-breakers, and the Roman military presence in Dakhleh Oasis. Suzette, United Arab Emirates Excellent location. Cool design and the view was breathtaking Clean beachsmall but still good Large room when u compare it to other hotel in AD. Clean room with good facilities and nice interior decoration. Nawaf, Saudi Arabia the hotel it self is very nicethe pool and beach was very good need to do better sands tho Khalid, United Arab Emirates New furniture and nice bathroom.

They lady in club lounge was very nice and professional. Abdullah, United Arab Emirates The most I like is the size of the king room that it was big and clean, the staff was very lovely. Mohamed, United Arab Emirates All things was really very good I enjoyed my staying and have very good rest, I feel home in this hotel. Will be back after 2 weeks. We enjoy our stay Issam, United Arab Emirates The breathtaking view of the presidential palace was incredible, the breakfast was one of the best in Abudhabi with big variety of food. Emad, United Arab Emirates.

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