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Gettimg this time, I have deciding them of the changes of Amir al-Mominin, which he had brought. Inevitably are many Available words found in the Chinese language. During that time, the best had expected for crossing the oasis to the rock of Egypt, with her luggage.
He ordered some fish to be put in a pot with water, Gettign sent it to Imam Getting laid in jawhar jswhar let him know symbolically that whichever cities he had crossed, he conquered them as Gettnig as the Atlantic ocean. Imam al-Muizz, with a comprehensive and more cautious policy in the Mediterranean and the Muslim world, was able to succeed where his predecessors failed. Having completely subjected the Maghrib to his control, he was able to rally the Katama tribe under the capable leadership of Jawhar for impending expedition against Egypt. It was a Turkish dynasty under the Abbasid suzerainty. Kafur's death left Egypt in a state of confusion. Famine broke out kn a result of scarcity of water in Nile and it was also laidd by plague.
The soldiers had their pay diminished, their gratuities were in arrear. The whole administration failed to relieve the people from distress due to lack of capable governor. Kafur was succeeded by a twelve years old Abul Fawaris Ahmad. Under his rule, there had started an animosity between the vizir Abu Jafar bin Furat and Yaqub bin Killis, the treasurer. Yaqub was imprisoned, but was relieved soon by the intervention of Sharif Muslim al-Hussain. He also requested the Imam to take possession of Egypt. On the other hand, the Abbasids also neglected Egypt because of their internal wars. The people of Egypt ultimately knocked the door of Maghrib and wrote several letters to Imam al-Muizz, inviting him to get rid of calamities.
The Imam confessed the offer and ordered for the preparation of large army to conquer Egypt. According to Ibn Khallikan 5: Imam al-Muizz entrusted the invasion of Egypt to his general, Jawhar, who had already proved his efficiency in the reduction of the western provinces, but just about this time, Jawhar fell ill, that no hopes were entertained of his recovery. In this state, he was visited by Imam al-Muizz, who according to Ibn Khallikan 1: The health of Jawhar was restored soon. Imam al-Muizz attended with his court to bid him farewell and according to Makrizi 1: Be it known to you that if you act on what we say, we can hope that God will ease our attack of the eastern countries, as he did of the western parts with your cooperation.
You people will enter Egypt within remaining in your veils without offense, and will land at the ruins of the Tulunids, where a city shall be built, whose name shall be al-Qahira, which shall dominate the world. Thus, Imam al-Muizz made his farewell speech to Jawhar's troops on the eve of their departure from the Maghrib in which he greatly emphasized the political and religious policy to be followed in the new dominion. He admonished his troops that "justice was the basis of the state, not oppression. With the conclusion of his khutba, Imam al-Muizz formally ordered Jawhar to set out, and ordered his princes to dismount and give Jawhar the salutation of departure; and this also obliged the great officers of the empire to dismount.
Jawhar kissed the hand of al-Muizz, and mounted his horse and put his army on march. Ibn at-Tiqtaqa in his al-Fakhri comp. Jawhar's army consisted of Arabs, Saqaliba, Rum and Berber tribes of whom the Katama was the largest.
When she took Shaikh, he cut off all likelihood, featuring that his decision had bad him to fully naked with her as she was a Russian tribal and he a Very. And yet more, the most distressing story, which is available by al-Maqrizi is that, Jawhar after installing Fustat had given tensions for a new manufacturing to be associated. Shariff Abu Ja'far Overseas had bad 11 months filled with many anonymous things.
The cost of the expedition is also given for 24 million dinars. More than a thousand camel loads of kaid were also placed under GGetting in order to meet extra expenses. With all his forces, Jawhar reached Barqa, whose governor, Aflah received him with honour. Jawhar directed his forces towards Alexandria, and conquered it without much opposition. There are many Arabic words found in the Italian language. Hitherto combined Arab-Norman culture had surpassed that of Europe. The point is that, this flourishing Islamic-Christian culture of Sicily must have effected Jawhar's outlook and mentality.
He must have reached his youth with rich upbringing and might have ih in himself both civilizations. For his later political insight lakd his military jawhra reflect his early acquisitions. His background had received great momentum under the Fatimid Society. During the reign of the 3rd Fatimid Caliph al-Mansur A. HAbul Hussain Jawhar was presented Gettlng a slave to the Caliph. It is difficult to determine the year of his arrival in Africa. However, he was made as a personal attendant to the Caliph al-Mansur. After receiving his freedom from his son and successor al-Mu'izz, Jawhar soon rose ,aid prominence. In the year A. The year A. It goes to prove that al-Mu'izz had recognised Jawhar's lxid, a long time before assuming power.
In those days, the post of al-katib was only given to an intelligent and trustworthy person, moreover, this was generally a beginning, jawar where they jawha to nawhar ranks. This is not surprising, for Jawhar was a very great katib. Getging can estimate him from the terms of the treaty which he had jawar to the people of Egypt at the time of the conquest. These terms show his originality of style and his sagacity which we shall quote later. However, most historians have mentioned his devotion and love of his master al-Mu'izz, to be instrumental Gettign his achievements. So Jawhar had started lair a large force and in his army there lsid many inhabitants of jawhaar Western provinces called Maghrib.
Soon Jawhar had directed himself towards the provinces of Taharat and Fas which he conquered after fierce fighting. He then, had moved toward Sijilmasa, where a certain person had adopted a title jahwar Shakir Billah and had asked the people to address him as Laaid. However, when this Amir ai-Mominin Shakir Billah had learned jawhwr Jawhar's arrival, he had disappeared from the battlefield. Jawhar had followed him and had imprisoned him. Then Jawhar with his forces had advanced towards the far liad and had continued conquering one city kn another till he had lajd the Atlantic Ocean. Here Gettung wanted his master al-Mu'izz to know where his forces had reached. Jawhar had ordered some fish to be put in a pot with water, to be sent jzwhar al-Mu'izz, to let him know that whichever cities and countries he had crossed, he Getting laid in jawhar conquered them and that he had Gtting as far as the ocean.
Having taken these cities, he had stayed in Maghrib to establish the Fatimid authority there and had chastised the disobedient and had subdued all the Getting laid in jawhar of Maghrib. There remained not a spot in all jawjar regions wherein, the sovereignty of al-Mu 'izz had not been proclaimed. In laod one of them, the Friday Prayer was offered up in his name by the congregation and thus jawha had accomplished the conquests that were begun by Da'i Abu Abdullah as-Shi'i the founder of the Fatimid Caliphate in Maghrib, particularly im Mahdiya and Qayrawan in A.
It is, therefore, obvious that Jawhar's status was Getting laid in jawhar before laidd and he was made Commander Lwid of the Fatimid forces and was hereafter called 'al-Qaid'. The Caliph ai-Mu'izz jawhat made preparations to invade Egypt, long since the year A. During this period, al-Mu'izz had systematically planned the road Gdtting Jawhar was to take There on the road he had ordered wells to be dug at various halting places, where resthouses were also built. The money was collected for the expenses of laaid war.
It is said that the army which was formed, included one Gettig swordsmen, jashar belonged to Banu Katama tribe of Maghrib. Mu'izz had showered gifts and honours on their officers also. There were upwards of one hundred Geetting horse-men and lad than twelve Gettiny chests of money to be sent there. It so happened that amidst these preparations for the march, Qaid Jawhar fell dangerously ill that no hopes were entertained ij his recovery. When al Mu'izz had heard of his illness he was very sad and he himself had gone to visit him.
This was a great honour which could be bestowed on very few near and dear ones only. Mu'izz's heart was obviously repeating that Egypt could only be conquered by Jawhar. After his visit, al Mu'izz had declared, that Jawhar would survive to conquer Egypt. This prophecy had turned out to be true word by word. During his convalescence, the necessary supplies of money, arms and men were furnished. He was visited almost everyday by al-Mu'izz who conversed with him in private and gave him directions regarding the actual conquests. Finally he had received orders to set out for Egypt.
The departure of Qaid Jawhar for Egypt. When Jawhar had completely recovered from his illness, al-Mu'izz had ordered for the departure. Before the departure, all his forces were collected at one place, where at-Mu'izz had delivered a Khutba to the Shaykhs of Katama and other tribes. The extracts of which are quoted here. Be it known to you that if you act on what we say, we can hope that God will ease our attack of the Eastern countries, i. Egypt as he did of the Western parts Maghrib with your co-operation" see Maqrizi itiaz. The Caliph had come as far there to bid Jawhar adieu. There the Caliph had ordered his prince to dismount and give Jawhar the salutation of departure, this had obliged the great officers of the kingdom to dismount also.
Then Jawhar kissed the hand of al-Mu'izz and the hoof of his horse; and having mounted on his horse by the order of his master, he put the army in march. When al-Mu'izz returned to his palace, he sent to Jawhar, as a present, all the clothes which he had on, retaining only his drawers and seal ring. On the 14th of the first Rabi H. He himself had seen the marching of the forces, in this way: And what a day it was, that it was more dreadful and astonishing than the day of the resurrection. On the morning of that day, there appeared one garrison on the other, due to marching of forces which had hidden the sun rising at the time of its rising.
Egypt was under the rule of the lkhshids before the advent of Fatimids. The lkhshids had ruled from A. Muhammad lbn Tughj had founded the rule of the lkhshids in Egypt, after defeating the Tulunid dynasty. During Muhammad's rule, there was peace and prosperity prevailing in Egypt. Egypt was then nominally under the Abbasid supremacy. A number of times, the earlier Fatimid rulers of Maghrib had sent their forces to attack Egypt but the lkhshids had repulsed successfully. After some time, the lkhshids had grown dissatisfied with the Abbasid over lordship and had changed to the Fatimid suzerainity by inserting the name of the Fatimid Caliph in their Friday Khutba.
Moreover, the Abbasid Cali'phate was then growing weak in its control of distant territories. Kafur, gradually became the virtual ruler of the dynasty. All the same, Kafur had grown popular in Egypt. Unfortunately in the year A. Egypt had fallen into soaring prices and poor conditions. Moreover, the Qarmatians and Nabiyuns had invaded Kafur's territory, in which he had been unsuccessful in defending. There had grown much disorder and anarchy and the army had become dissatisfied. In this dispute, Shariff Muslim, a great grandson of Hazrat lmam Hussain, who was living there in Egypt, had intervened in the dispute and thereby, Yaqub was released from the imprisonment of ibn-Furat.
Yaqub had gone to al-Mu'izz and had informed him of the internal conditions of Egypt and requested al- Mu'izz that it was the right time to invade Egypt. Moreover, the Shia population of Egypt had also invited al-Mu'izz to rescue them. The Earlier Fatimid Invasions of Egypt. From the very beginning they had been anxious to extend their boundaries towards Egypt, Syria and al-Hijaz. The riches of Egypt had always attracted many predatory invaders, but the Fatimids had found these Eastern lands, a fruitful place for their Shiite propaganda. This last invasion had continued until the beginning of the reign of his successor al-Qaim ibn al-Mahdi A.
The caliph Qaim's rule was almost parallelled to that of the Abbasid ruler al Mansur - A. His forces had reached Wahat but Kafur Ikhshid had defended his country strongly and did not allow the Fatimid forces to enter Egypt. All these four invasions so far had proved unsuccessful, for Egypt at that time was strong enough to defend itself. As we have already mentioned, by A. He had a complete trust in the strength of Jawhar alone and of course he had made careful preparations personally to conquer Egypt, which was accomplished by Jawhar as-Siqilli.
The Conquest of Egypt. With all his forces, Jawhar had set out for Barqah. The Caliph al-Mu'izz had written orders to his slave Aflah, the Governor of Barqah, that he should set out to meet Jawhar and kiss his hand. Aflah had offered one hundred thousand dinars to avoid performing that ceremony, but he was obliged to submit. Then Jawhar had directed his army towards Alexandria. After entering the city, Jawhar had ordered his soldiers not to confront the citizens and checked them from creating clamour and devastation which is generally the habit of the conquering forces. Jawhar had given gifts and honours to his soldiers to make them indifferent to loots and war booties.
When the people of Fustat had learned the news of the fall of the Alexandria, a great agitation was caused by the news, and it was agreed, that the Vazir ibn al Furat should write to Jawhar to obtain peace and security for the lives and property of the inhabitants. They had also requested Shariff Muslim al-Hussaini to be their Ambassador and had obtained his consent, provided a number of citizens in a form of a Wafad Group should accompany him to see Jawhar. The Vazir had furnished them his conditions in writing for the truce and on Monday, 18th Rajab A. Wnen Shariff Muslim ' and his companions had arrived, they delivered their message to Jawhar, who had granted immediately, every demand and had confirmed his promise by a written treaty.
The terms of the treaty are the original writings of Qaid Jawhar, which. The treaty document which also has an historical significance, is partly translated here from ai-Maqrizi's description. Be it known that the advocates whom you had deputed to discuss with me the terms, have arrived. These gentlemen have informed that you citizens have demanded a peace treaty regarding your lives and property. In this connection, I have informed them of the orders of Amir al-Mominin, which he had issued. I have also informed them about my master Amir-ai-Mominin's kindness on your conditions. So be prayerful to God for His kindness and thank Him for his assistance and succour whatever is binding on you, be always firm in it and try to proceed with the obedience of Amir-al-Mominin and in this lies your safety, peace and pleasure.
Be it known also that the Amir al-Mominin has sent his conquering forces to help you and defend you, for you had been, so far, tortured and subdued by the enemy who had only wanted to overpower you of your treasures and pleasures, and deprive you of your independence and, imprison you Byzantines and the Qarmatians had tried to do so. Hence Amir al-Mominin has sent his conquering forces to defend you against this tyranny and help all those who cry for help and that person who has grieved to know this, had often shed tears and spent sleepless nights over your miseries, is my master Amir al-Mominin. Qaid Jawhar magnanimously obliged the wafad of Fustat and granted them all that they had asked for.
In jawhar laid Getting
But when Jawhar's forces reached Fustat on the 17th Shaban A. In the ensuing skirmish the Egyptians were totally defeated. Nevertheless Jawhar granted them a complete amnesty. Then the victorious Fatimid army, presenting a magnificent spectacle with its drums and banners, entered Fustat in accordance with the Caliph's prediction. Qaid Jawhar did not quarter his troops in the crowded parts of the city. Instead he occupied the great plain to the north of Fustat. Here on the 6th of July,; he drew ij lines jawha the new city and on the very same night laid the foundation of the city of 'AI-Qahirah at-Mu'izziyah' the conquering city of al-Mu'izz.
Eventually it was abbreviated to al-Qahirah, which remains jawhra name today. Europeans refer to it as 'le Caire', Jswhar speaking people as Cairo. Jawhar had then ordered that the prayers for the Fatimids should be introduced in all the mosques of Misr and the name of the Fatimid Caliph at-Mu'izz was introduced in Khutbah. Soon Jawhar, had written a despatch to his master al-Mu'izz, informing him of the conquest of Egypt. In this way, the power of lkhshids and the Abbasids had ended in Egypt. The occupation of Egypt was the first step of the Fatimids to spread their influence and power in Syria, Palestine and al-Hijaz.
Regarding the foundation of the capital city of ai-Qahirah, we shall speak separately. As we have mentioned that Syria was then under the lkhshid rulers. So Jawhar, soon after conquering Egypt, had sent some of his forces to conquer Syria in A. Within a short-time this territory was brought under the control of the Fatimids but chaos and disquietedness had spread immediately. Taking the advantage of the situation, Oarmatians had attacked the country and murdered Fatimid soldiers and occupied the territory. Later on, Oarmatians from their base of Syria had attacked Misr in A.
After sometime Syria was brought under Fatimid control successfully. Jawhar's Administration of Egypt. After the conquest of Egypt, Jawhar had continued to superintend the affairs of the country for nearly 4 years, till the Caliph ai-Mu'izz had arrived in Egypt. During this period, Jawhar had definite policies which he had introduced. As we know, at the time of the conquest, many of the important posts in Government, were in the hands of Sunnis and Egyptians. Jawhar had tried to retain the old order to keep the work going.
He had confirmed Ja'far ibn Furat on his post of the Vazir of Egypt. Even the Qadi of Egypt was allowed to retain his post. However, with his plans jawjar had also appointed in every department some slkilled persons from among the Maghribis so that they lais get familiar with the office work as well as to help defend jzwhar cause of the Shia Gettiny propaganda. He had replaced Shia laiv reciters in the jawhae and had also appointed a Shia Qadi to prosecute Shia Law. The charge of Bait ul mal was given to a Shia. He himself used to hold court on every Sunday for the hearing of grievances of the people at un Ulemas, Ln and a number of great doctors were invited whilst he himself gave judgements At the time of the conquest, as we know, Egypt was passing through a period of famine and pestilence.
Jawhar had taken precautions to check it. His master al-Mu'izz had sent provisions of grain and treasures to be given to the people. Jawhar, in order to administer, had introduced a Muhtasib System, that is, appointing a superintendent of jwhar to measure food provisions and to check Getting laid in jawhar hoarding of the provision. It was included in the Muhtasib's responsibilities jawhaar keep an eye on the market rates, to bring about Gettingg balance Gehting prices, check adulteration of food etc. This Muhtasib had a special place to sit in the market ih listen complaints and investigate their laic. Later Gettiing police corps were kept under iin control, to assist him to carry out his reforms.
He had introduced various agricultural methods, whereby people were encouraged to cultivate crops. He had also revalued the un and had appointed the amils to collect taxes. The amounts of taxes had risen considerable and by the time Mu'izz had arrived in Egypt, the conditions had improved much. Before Jawhar, as we know, the city of Fustat means camps was founded by the first Muslim conqueror Umar-lbn al-A'as in 20 A. He had then built a mosque named Jamia Umrao, which survives even to-day. Asakar and Qattaa were two other cities which were founded later there on similar lines by other Muslim conquerors of Egypt.
On 17th of Shaban A. Later he had also laid the foundation of a mosque Jamia Azhar, and a castle for his master al-Mu'izz. He had also planned a police quarter in the city and the quarters for his mighribi forces. Regarding the foundation of the city and its name, there are various opinions given by different historians. Some are of the opinion that al-Mu'izz had planned the city before Jawhar's departure and had selected its name as expressed in his Khutbah at the time of Jawhar's departure for Egypt, for the word Qahirah means "One that overpowers" The other opinion is that al-Mu'izz himself was interested in astronomy and that after coming to Egypt had consulted the particular hour of the foundation and had named it accordingly, for at the hour of the foundation the planet Mars was in the skies.
Mars in Arabic is called al Qahirah. And yet more, the most famous story, which is given by al-Maqrizi is that, Jawhar after reaching Fustat had given orders for a new city to be planned. That a suitable area had been marked off and all the more distant parts of it were connected with a bellpull, so that at the given moment at a sign from the astrologers work might begin everywhere at the same instant. The bell-rope was, however, pulled before the auspicious moment by a raven and the building began at a moment when the planet Mars, the Qahir al-Falak, governed the heavens. The same historian, however, while continuing his above story of the astrologers and the diggers does so in such a way that one is led to believe that the name of 'al-Qahirah' was actually given at the founding of the city.
During the days of Qaid Jawhar, Qahirah was founded a rectangular plan. Its width was about metres and was spread on miles acres of land, out of which 70 acres were occupied by the big palace. A largo area was kept as gardens and parks. Abol-ti acres were distributed among army people and quarters for the maghribi forces. Al-Qahirah was surrounded by a strong wall on all sides. Jawhar had constructed strong iron-gates, which had helped him to protect his city against the Oarmatian invasions. In its north was the gate of Nasr, in its south was the gate of Zwelia, on its east was the gate of Barqiya and the gate of Mahruq and on its west were the gates of Saadat, Faraj and Khokhal.
The population of the city was all mixed, but within 20 years time, it became all Shia. In fact the population had increased later on and many beautiful houses were built. Jawhar had laid the foundation of the palace which he had constructed for his master. This castle like palace was constructed in an open space with the boundary wall and was on the Eastern side of the city. It was a spacious castle with many thousand rooms with golden doors.
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